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  1. Economic Development Indicators 2007 is available at:
  2. Environment New Zealand 2007 is available at:
  3. Measuring New Zealand's Progress Using a Sustainable Development Approach: 2008 is available at:


  1. Statistics New Zealand (2009d).
  2. Statistics New Zealand (2007d).
  3. Statistics New Zealand (2008e) p 7.
  4. Statistics New Zealand (2009a) p 6.
  5. These figures are from 2006-based medium population projections (Series 5), assuming medium fertility, medium mortality and a long-term annual net migration gain of 10,000.
  6. These figures are from 2006-based medium population projections (Series 6), assuming medium fertility, medium mortality, medium inter-ethnic mobility and medium long-term annual net migration of -3,000 for the European or Other population (from 2010), -3,000 for the Māori population (from 2010), 12,000 for the Asian population (from 2010) and 500 for Pacific peoples (from 2008).
  7. Comparability between 2001 and 2006 data may be affected by a change in the census question. Before 2006, the census asked whether anyone who lived in the dwelling owned it with or without a mortgage. The 2006 Census included an additional question on whether any of the occupants held the dwelling in a family trust. People who did hold the dwelling in a trust in 2006 have been counted as owning the dwelling. In previous years, some people in this category may have simply said they did not own the dwelling and would not have been counted as homeowners. Consequently, the actual decline in home ownership between 2001 and 2006 may have been slightly greater than the census figures indicate.
  8. The family data relates to families within households. In official statistics, a family is defined as two or more people living in the same household who comprise either a couple, with or without children, or one parent and their children. The children do not have partners or children of their own living in the same household. People who were temporarily away from home on census night are included as part of the family. There is no data available on parents and children who live in different households.
  9. More information on speakers of te reo Māori is provided in the Māori language speakers indicator.
  10. Disability is defined as any perceived limitation in activity resulting from a long-term condition or health problem; lasting or expected to last six months or more and not completely eliminated by an assistive device. See Statistics New Zealand (2007a) p 26.
  11. Statistics New Zealand (2007a).
  12. These employment rates are for people in households.
  13. Adolescent Health Research Group (2008a) p 28.


  1. Howden-Chapman and Tobias (2000).
  2. Ministry of Health (1999b) p 351.
  3. Ministry of Health (2007a).
  4. Babor et al (2001).
  5. Conner et al (2005).
  6. OECD (2009b).
  7. 2005 figures have been revised; 2006 data is provisional.
  8. Age-standardised to the World Health Organization standard world population.
  9. Ministry of Health (2006b) p 14.
  10. These countries have been selected because they are considered to have a reliable data collection process, and because they are the countries most often used in comparisons with New Zealand on health measures. The suicide data in Figure SU2 is based on 28 OECD countries from OECD (2009c).
  11. The international rates are annual rates re-calculated by the New Zealand Health Information Service to enable geographic comparisons of data collected by the World Health Organization. These rates are therefore different to those used elsewhere in this chapter.
  12. World Health Organization (2004).
  13. Ministry of Health (1999b) p 344.
  14. Ministry of Health (2006c) Table C2 p 39.
  15. Ministry of Health (2009b) Data tables, Prevalence data, Age-standardised rates by gender and NZDep2006 quintile for current smokers.
  16. OECD (2009c).
  17. OECD (2009c).
  18. The World Health Organization defines obesity as having a BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 (WHO 2000). In compliance with international practice, the same cut-off points have been used for all ethnic groups (Ministry of Health (2008c) pp 104, 105).
  19. Cole et al (2000).
  20. Ministry of Health (2008c) p 104.
  21. Rates for 1997 and 2002/2003 were revised by Public Health Intelligence, Ministry of Health.
  22. The rate for 2002 was revised by Public Health Intelligence, Ministry of Health..
  23. Ministry of Health (2004c) p 36.
  24. OECD (2009c).
  25. Babor et al (2001).
  26. Conner et al (2005).
  27. Age-standardised rates have been used for comparison over time.
  28. OECD (2009c).

Knowledge and Skills

  1. See, for example, Wylie (1999).
  2. OECD (2007b).
  3. Wylie (1999); Boocock (1995); Wylie et al (2001); Wylie et al (2004).
  4. OECD (2007b).
  5. Due to methodological changes in the allocation of attainment levels in 2004, the percentage of leavers with qualifications higher than NCEA Level 2 in 2004 is not comparable with other years and has been omitted.
  6. OECD (2008a). The OECD data used here also includes international students. This group is not included in the analysis in this section.
  7. OECD (2008a). The figure reported for the proportion of New Zealand adults with at least upper secondary level qualifications in 2006 (69 per cent) is lower than the figures reported in previous editions of Education at a Glance. This is due to a revision in ISCED classifications used by the OECD. The removal of School Certificate as an ISCED 3 classification by the OECD accounts for most of this change.
  8. Ministry of Education (2001b).
  9. Satherley P, Lawes E and Sok S (2008a) pp 7, 9, 11.
  10. Satherley P, Lawes E and Sok S (2008a) pp 16, 18, 21.

Paid Work

  1. This includes wages and other payments to employees and entrepreneurial income. 1999 Statistics New Zealand data, cited in Department of Labour (1999).
  2. Wilson (1999).
  3. OECD Stats extract, Harmonised unemployment rate, accessed 20 April 2009.
  4. OECD (2008d) Statistical Annex, Table G p 355.
  5. OECD Stats extract, Labour force status by sex and age, accessed 27 May 2009.
  6. In The Social Report 2008, this figure was incorrectly shown as 143.

Economic Standard of Living

  1. Royal Commission on Social Security in New Zealand (1972).
  2. Between 2000 and 2004, New Zealand ranked 21st on real GDP per capita. A major revision of national accounts in Greece lifted real GDP per capita in that country, lowering New Zealand’s ranking from 21st to 22nd in subsequent years. See OECD (2007a) Economic Survey of Greece, Chapter 1,,3343,en_2649_34569_38489288_1_1_1_1,00.html.
  3. Statistics New Zealand (2001b) Table 1 p 15, Table 4 p 17. Per person value calculated by the Ministry of Social Development.
  4. Perry B (2009) p 49.
  5. For a description of the Gini coefficient, see Statistics New Zealand (1999) p 118.
  6. OECD (2008b) Table 1.A2.4.
  7. OECD (2008b) Annex Table 5.A2.1.
  8. While the data is robust enough to give a general indication of relativities between ethnic groups, the relatively small sample sizes for the non-European ethnic groups can lead to some volatility in trends for each group separately. Robust data is not available for low-income households by ethnicity.
  9. Baker et al (2000).
  10. Evans (2003).
  11. The trend in household crowding for the total population cannot be inferred from the trends for the ethnic groupings because some census respondents did not provide ethnicity data.
  12. Statistics New Zealand (2003) p 33.
  13. Percentages do not add to 100 as some people identified with more than one ethnic group.
  14. Persons who received income support in the 12 months before the census. Excludes those who received ACC or New Zealand Superannuation.

Civil and Political Rights

  1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (1998).
  2. The 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy found that New Zealanders felt wellbeing was strongly associated with the ability to make choices and to not have choices imposed on them. Royal Commission on Social Policy (1988).
  3. For example, see the section on New Zealand in the United States State Department Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labour (2003) Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 27783.htm.
  4. Human Rights Act 1993, Part 2, section 21. Reprint as at 1 October 2008.
  5. Marsh and Sahin-Dikmen (2002) pp 40, 41.
  6. Inter-Parliamentary Union, PARLINE database, Last election.
  7. From 1989, overall turnout data is based on mayoral election turnout only. See Department of Internal Affairs (2006) p 17.
  8. Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in National Parliaments.
  9. These figures exclude Trusts, which are not local authorities. See Department of Internal Affairs (2009) p 10.
  10. The 1989 elections were the first to be held following a major restructuring of local government.

Cultural Identity

  1. Durie et al (2002); Durie (1999).
  2. Statistics New Zealand (2001a).
  3. ACNielsen (2005).
  4. NZ On Air (1999) p 3.
  5. All those who identified as Māori in the census are counted as part of the Māori ethnic group in this indicator.
  6. "Very well" means being able to talk about almost anything in Māori. "Well" means being able to talk about many things in Māori. "Fairly well" refers to being able to talk about some things in Māori. "Not very well" refers to only being able to talk about simple/basic things in Māori.
  7. The census ethnicity question is a multiple-response question and the high proportion of Pacific peoples who can speak Māori may reflect the high proportion of people who identified with both ethnic groups in the last census. This is also the case for the European ethnic group. In this section, "New Zealanders" have been included with the European ethnic group, using customised data that counts individuals once only.

Physical Environment

  1. The 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy identified "guardianship of the physical resource" as a major part of the "safe prospect" aspect of social wellbeing.
  2. Fisher et al (2007).
  3. Ministry for the Environment (2009).
  4. Department of Environment and Climate Change, New South Wales Government (2008; Environment Protection Authority Victoria (2008).
  5. Ministry of Health (2009a) p 6.
  6. Baker et al (2009b).
  7. Baker et al (2009a).


  1. Morris et al (2003) pp 222–224.
  2. National Road Safety Committee (2000).
  3. OECD (2008e).
  4. Mayhew and Reilly (2007b) pp 24–26.
  5. Mayhew and Reilly (2007b) p 54. The incidence figure for men for this type of offence [confrontational offences committed by partners] has a relative standard error between 15 per cent and 25 per cent and should be viewed with caution.
  6. The 2007 injury and death data has been revised.
  7. Land Transport Safety Authority (2000).
  8. OECD (2008c) International Road Traffic and Accident Database (accessed 2 March 2009).

Social Connectedness

  1. Spellerberg (2001).
  2. Donovan and Halpern (2002) p 27.
  3. Noll and Berger-Schmitt (2000).
  4. OECD (2008f).
  5. Statistics Canada (2004); European Commission (2005).
  6. Adolescent Health Group (2008a) p 14.
  7. Questions asked in Youth’07 and Youth2000 (undertaken in 2001) differ slightly. In 2001 students were asked: "Most weeks do you get to spend enough time with your Dad (or someone who acts as your Dad)?" In 2007 students were asked: "Do you get to spend enough time with him (your Dad or someone who acts as your Dad)?" Both surveys had the same response options.


  1. NZDep gives a deprivation score to each small area of New Zealand, using socio-economic information from the five-yearly population census. Scores range from 1–10, where 1 equals the 10th of areas with the least deprived scores and 10 equals the 10th of areas with the most deprived scores. The range of scores can also be expressed as fifths (quintiles). This index is used for several indicators in the Health and Safety domains., pp 8, 16.
    The school decile index is based on census information about the community from which a school draws its students. Decile 1 schools are the 10th of schools with the highest proportion of students from low socio-economic communities, while decile 10 schools are the 10th of schools with the lowest proportion of students from such areas. A school's decile does not indicate the overall socio-economic mix of the school.